urn STOCKSPRING ANTIQUES 
urn




INSPIRED by BLANC de CHINE

THE ANTHONY COLLECTION
of
WHITE PORCELAIN

7th June - 14th June 2017

Stockspring Antiques
114 Kensington Church St
London W8 4BH
Tel. (+44) (0)207  727 7995

email: stockspring@antique-porcelain.co.uk

A printed catalogue is available on request 

All items are available for purchase, please contact us for further information.
 


 

Introduction

When porcelain was first introduced into Europe from China in the 16th century, it transfixed the imagination of Europe's rulers. It was hard and yet you could see light through it, fragile yet durable, the surface was impervious to food and it came from a fabulous, exotic and virtually unknown land. Such was the awestruck ignorance in which it was held that some believed it detected poison, and so was a good choice for the dishes of princes whose courtiers' loyalties were uncertain.

The Dutch and English East India Companies, founded to exploit the riches of the East, from the late 17th century started to ship porcelain in vast quantities to Europe to an insatiable market - for instance the Dorothy in 1694 carried 124,000 pieces of  porcelain in her holds. So highly was it regarded that it acquired the soubriquet "white gold". The Chinese porcelain imported by the Companies was primarily of two types: blue and white  from Jingdezhen, shipped from Canton; and white porcelain, which came to be known as blanc de Chine, from Dehua in Fujian province, shipped from the trading port of Amoy.  The desire for the new commodity came to be driven not just as a princely status symbol but as an integral and important part of fashionable room design and the etiquette of polite society.

The elaborate Baroque decorative schemes of architects such as Daniel Marot demanded walls covered in symmetrical panels and scrolls formed from brackets with porcelain. The lustrous array of bowls, tea bowls, saucers, dishes, ewers and vases were not appreciated as individual works of art, but as components of the complete interior decorative scheme. The supreme collector  of Oriental porcelain was Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony (1670-1733). By 1721 he had acquired over thirteen  thousand pieces, detailed in an inventory of that year. To house his collection he planned a Japanese Palace with South East Asian porcelain on the lower floor and Meissen porcelain on the upper floor. The Dehua pieces, which totalled about  twelve hundred and fifty items, were to be displayed in side rooms with red lacquer walls gilded with dragons, the radiant white forms being dramatically set off  by the sumptuous walls. The plan was never completely realised due to his death in 1733.

Queen Mary at Kensington Palace was an avid collector of Dehua porcelain, and  there was a large collection at Burghley House which, importantly for later historians, was inventoried in 1688, many pieces of both collections still exist. By 1700 most princely courts and aristocratic houses in Europe had a collection of Chinese porcelain.

Porcelain was also a vital component of the new etiquette involving the taking of tea. The tea ceremony which developed in England and on the Continent required a range of vessels and utensils previously unknown, as the Chinese method of serving tea was less elaborate, and  milk and sugar were not used. Consequently existing objects, both European and Oriental, had to be adopted or adapted to newly evolved functions: the canisters for the hostess to store tea and from which to measure it, the milk jug, saucer, spoon tray and sugar container were European forms. Initially these new wares either used Chinese forms in a novel way or were strongly influenced by Chinese designs and were made in emulation of the Chinese aesthetic. Gradually wholly European forms evolved.

Of the three hot beverages introduced into Europe in the 17th century it was tea which acquired an elaborate social ritual. Coffee and chocolate were prepared by servants and were served already prepared, so the range of new accoutrements in addition to those also used for tea, was limited to the pots in which to serve them. These initially however also reflected a Chinese aesthetic, in deference to the material rather then to origin of the beverage.

Under the impetus of the porcelain obsession of Augustus the Strong, the first true European porcelain was developed at Meissen. The early wares, not surprisingly, took as their inspiration the Chinese porcelain which was in the collection. The moulded sprigs of prunus blossom on the Dehua blanc de Chine were the first and remained the most popular motif of the new manufactory. The other early  European factories, when they developed their own porcelain, continued its use even when the forms became wholly European. This evolution of taste is one of the most important facets which is traced in the Anthony Collection, from blanc de Chine prototypes with  European copies through transitional pieces which have a combination of Western and Eastern qualities, to wholly European objects which are undecorated, a last acknowledgement of the medium’s origins.

By about 1720 Meissen was developing its European aesthetic and its blanc de Chine wares were becoming markedly more European in character, with European shapes and sprigging. In France the soft paste factories, particularly St Cloud followed the same trajectory as Meissen, their early wares followed the Dehua prototypes but quite rapidly developed European forms. The early St Cloud underglaze blue decoration was inspired by Jean Bérain with borders of lambrequins, and so always had a European character.

England was slower to develop a porcelain industry than the Continent. The two main protagonists in the field in the mid 1740’s to early 1750’s, Chelsea and Bow, took different stylistic decisions for their productions.

As can be seen in the Chelsea examples in this collection most of the earliest, Incised Triangle period, wares were European in inspiration. On initial impression, the most overtly Oriental example is the tea plant beaker, however the applied sprigs are far more expressive and dominant than any Dehua beaker, and although the form mirrors that from Dehua it owes much to European metalwork. The goat and bee jug is based on a silver prototype and is totally Western in conception. Chelsea was owned by   Nicholas Sprimont, a silversmith who was apparently intent on creating precious metal forms in porcelain - not so much “white gold” as “white silver”. The Chelsea copies of Dehua pieces are for more utilitarian objects such as beakers, closely allying the wares to their use and origins.

The complexity of the different cultural influences by 1750 is apparent in the pair of Chelsea Sphinxes - an Egyptian form which has been Romanised and developed further to conform with Baroque taste, but kept white in the blanc de Chine tradition which enhances its sculptural qualities.

Thomas Frye founded the Bow factory to be the “New Canton”, its wares consciously imitating and rivalling those of China in both form and decoration and it maintained this strategy longer than many of its rivals. M. L. Solon in his book  A Brief History of Old English Porcelain and its Manufactories extols the sprig wares of Bow over all others, “…none has ever equalled, in charm and perfection, a fine example of Bow manufacture. ..”.  It is in Bow that the transition from pure Chinese forms such as the rice bowl and cover, albeit used as a sucrier, through transitional stages such as the egg cup, to pure Western forms such as the salts, is best seen in this collection.

The other English factories represented here, as they were founded later than Chelsea and Bow, had only a brief flirtation with Oriental forms and decoration. With the sophistication of the technology of the European factories, new forms were developed which were more interested in the sculptural possibilities of white porcelain and had no precedent in Chinese ceramics but were devised to enhance the enjoyment and use of porcelain as part of daily life.

This collection has a wealth of  shell salts, including some very rare examples. They are the epitome of Rococo taste which favoured naturalistic forms, particularly those with a marine theme. Sprimont   created salts which were modelled as a shell supported by a crayfish, initially in silver and then in   porcelain, and these instigated the fashion for the shell salts made by most of the English factories. He also made a magnificent marine centrepiece, the Neptune Centrepiece for Frederick Prince of Wales which was a complex creation of shells, corals marine creatures and rockwork, with four dolphin supports, which is the probably influence on the Plymouth and Bristol salts. Shell salts are rarer in Continental factories, their popularity in England possibly due to the English being very conscious of themselves as a maritime power. An alternative use for these forms was as sweetmeats or pickle dishes.

Another purely Western object was the pot-pourri - a vase with pierced shoulders which was filled with dried flowers and herbs to scent the room. In accord with their contents they had flowers and leaves entwining around them, possibly inspired by Meissen porcelain vases with applied rose sprays. St Cloud was the first factory to produce these, followed by Chantilly, Vincennes and Mennecy. In 1749 the Dauphine presented a Vincennes vase filled with porcelain flowers, the assemblage mounted on a gilt-bronze base, to her father Augustus III of Saxony.

The Holy Grail of the English factories, which were decades behind those on the Continent in  porcelain technology, was a pure white body to rival the Chinese blanc de Chine or German Meissen. As the objects became entirely European, leaving a piece undecorated was less an acknowledgement of Chinese origins as a statement of technical achievement, as well as a respect for its sculptural integrity.

The Anthony Collection was assembled over a period of about twenty years. There were three main themes: to show the influence of Chinese blanc de Chine on European porcelain, to trace the development of  an independent European aesthetic in this Oriental medium, and to celebrate the sculptural and plastic qualities of objects without the distraction of colour. These themes have been realised in a collection which is both academic and composed of many fascinating and beautiful objects. It is a great tribute to the connoisseurship, knowledge and discernment of the collector.

                                                                                                                                      Antonia Agnew and Felicity Marno
Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine teapot
1. A rare Chinese blanc de Chine wine pot or teapot and cover
Ht: 10.1 cm      
Shunzhi or Kangxi,  c. 1650-1680
Of elongated globular form with a small, straight spout and substantial side handle, the knop of a six petalled flower, with an applied sprig of prunus on each side of the body.

Provenance: with Pierre Saqué, Paris
Alan Green collection

When tea became fashionable in the second half of the 17th century, new utensils had to be invented, adopted or adapted and a new etiquette had to be developed for the exotic hot beverage. The most I mmediate conundrum was the vessel in which to infuse and serve it. The earliest English teapot is   silver, in a tall cylindrical form as used for coffee in the coffee shops. The Chinese preferred the stoneware pots of Yixing but Europeans were smitten by the translucent fineness of porcelain. The blanc de Chine porcelain wine pots from Dehua were being imported by the Dutch East India Company and these were rapidly adopted as teapots. There are examples of these in the Dresden collection of  Augustus the Strong, and at Hampton Court from Queen Mary’s collection, so dateable prior to 1694 (e.g. RCIN 1182). In Dehua, tea was also served from porcelain pots which were more globular than the elongated wine pots and it was this form that became the accepted one for a teapot in the West, and the East India Companies started ordering them as well as wine pots from the 1650’s.

Ref: M. Penkala, Magic Blanc de Chine, pl. L, for a teapot of similar form.
Bow blanc de Chine teapot
2. A Bow teapot and cover
Ht: 7.4 cm                                                      
c. 1753-55
Of small, globular form with an elaborate leaf moulded handle, applied with prunus sprigs.

Prov: Zorka Hodgson Collection

Although decoration is after Dehua, the curved spout and elaborate Baroque handle  are European.

See Cat. nos. 28 and 38 for references to Bow teapots with flowers in the archives at Dumfries House.
Worcester blanc de Chine teapot
3. A Worcester teapot and cover
Ht: 10 cm                       c.  1760
Of barrel form moulded with flowering sprays, within  scroll bands.

It was unusual for Worcester to emulate blanc de Chine forms, and when thye did they tended to then be enamelled.

Ansbach teapot
4. An Ansbach teapot and cover
Ht: 7 cm                      
 c. 1765
Mark: A in underglaze blue
Of small size moulded with alt-ozier borders after Meissen, the spout as an animal’s head, with Rococo handle.

The spout is the only Chinese motif of this otherwise purely European form.   
Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine cups
5. A Chinese blanc de Chine wine cup
Ht: 7.2 cm                                  
Shunzhi or Kangxi, c. 1644-1722
Mark: a long mark within a rectangular frame
Of octagonal form with applied prunus sprigs to two opposing faces.

Wine cups, which are often erroneously referred to as libation cups in the West, were imported in large numbers by the Dutch and English East India Companies for use in the elaborate Baroque decorative room schemes fashionable in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

6. A Chinese blanc de Chine wine cup
Ht: 6.2 cm                                          
Shunzhi or Kangxi, c. 1644-1700
Of octagonal form with applied magnolia sprigs on one side and prunus sprigs on the reverse.

In China the plum or prunus blossom is one of the Three Friends of Winter, a symbol of hope and perseverence as it is the first flower to appear after Winter. The magnolia flower represents feminine beauty and purity and also nobility.

Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine wine cup
Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine wine cups
7. A Chinese blanc de Chine wine cup
Ht: 4.5 cm                                   
Shunzhi or Kangxi c. 1675-1722
Of octagonal form with a swastika moulded into the base.   

8. A Chinese blanc de Chine wine cup
Ht: 4.5 cm                                           
Shunzhi or Kangxi c. 1675-1722
 Of shaped quadrilateral form, moulded on each side with a peony leaf whose stem forms a foot.

Ref: P. J. Donnelly, Blanc de Chine, pl. 33.
Chinese Dehua wine cups
9. A Chinese blanc de Chine cup (top left)
Ht: 8 cm                                 
Shunzhi or Kangxi, c. 1644-1700
Of magnolia blossom form supported by stems of gnarled wood, spurs of which merge with the    flowering prunus sprays on either side.

10. A Chinese blanc de Chine cup (top right)
Ht: 6.5 cm                                                 
Qianlong, c. 1750-70
Of magnolia blossom form supported by stems of gnarled wood, spurs of which merge with the    flowering prunus sprays on either side.

11. A Chinese blanc de Chine cup (bottom left
Ht: 6.2 cm                                                
Kangxi, c. 1690-1722
Of magnolia blossom form supported by stems of gnarled wood, spurs of which merge with the    flowering prunus spray on one side and a magnolia spray on the reverse.

12. A Chinese Blanc de Chine cup (bottom right)
Ht: 6.2 cm                                 
Shunzhi or Kangxi, c. 1644-1700
Of magnolia blossom form supported by stems of gnarled wood, spurs of which merge with the    flowering prunus spray on one side and a magnolia spray on the reverse.



Augustus the Strong had a large collection of blanc de Chine cups in Dresden.  An inventory was  compiled in 1721, with each piece being engraved with the inventory number. It is interesting to see how the forms were described, which related to their use in the Court. The items included:

N43 - 6 oval coffee cups on feet shaped like branches and decorated with raised flowers (magnolia cups) - see Cat. nos. 9-12
N44 - 28 ditto
N45 - 2 ditto with slightly wavy rims
N51 - 2 oval octagonal cups with 4 feet and raised flowers - see Cat. nos. 5-7
N53 - 3 ditto
N54 - 2 oval cups on branches instead of feet. 2 deep (magnolia cups)
N55 - 5 ditto
N56 - 2 round chocolate cups with flowers - see Cat. nos. 19-21
N57 - ditto
N58 - 6 ditto
N60 - 5 octagonal round chocolate cups, with raised flowers
N65 - 7 fluted chocolate cups - see Cat. nos. 22 and 24
N82 - 38 oval coffee cups on 4 feet with raised leaves and flowers
N111 - 7 small leaf shaped dishes standing on a flower stem - see Cat. no. 16
N112 - 6 ditto
St Cloud egg cup
13. A Saint-Cloud egg cup
Ht: 8 cm                 
c. 1730-50
The bowl with a band of  gadrooning on a pedestal foot, the central knop and rim of the pedestal also gadrooned.

The form and decoration are strongly inspired by silver.

Ref: E. Le Bail, Tendre Porcelain de Saint-Cloud, p. 62 for similar egg cups, decorated in blue and white.
Bow egg cup
14. A Bow egg cup
Ht: 8.5 cm                       
c. 1755
Formed as a tall bowl on a spreading conical foot, both decorated with applied prunus sprigs.

This form is more usual in the blue and white wares of Jingdezhen as a goblet shaped stem cup and is very rare or unknown in blanc de Chine. The potters at Bow have combined two separate Oriental influences to create this European object.

Ref: A. Gabszewicz, Bow Porcelain, the Collection formed by Geoffrey Freeman, no. 45.
Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine pair of stem cups
15. A pair of Chinese blanc de Chine wine cups
Ht: 6 cm             
Qing c. 1796-1820
Each in the form of a stem cup, with sprigs of prunus blossom and buds.

Although their function in China was as wine cups, their probably use in Europe would have been as egg cups.
Chinese dehua blancd de Chine leaf pickle, Meissen leaf pickle, Derby leaf pickle
16. A Chinese blanc de Chine wine cup
W: 7 cm, Ht: 3.2 cm                     
Kangxi, 1661-1722
Leaf shaped with a stalk handle and supported on the base with a moulded lotus plant.
Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine pickle leaf

17. A Meissen pickle leaf dish
W: 8 cm,  Ht: 3.8 cm                                                
 c. 1730-40
Of serrated leaf shape with a stalk handle, moulded with prunus sprays issuing from stems which form the feet.

Although derived from the original blanc de Chine form, the Meissen example is lobed on both sides and the treatment of the prunus sprigs and feet is simpler than the Chinese.

18. A Derby pickle leaf dish
W: 6.5 cm, Ht: 3.2 cm                                                         
c. 1758-1760
Leaf shaped with an angular handle, three moulded leaves forming the feet.

This form is a good example of a Chinese object whose original function is not known or understood, adopted for a totally different purpose in Europe. They were used either for pickles, or as butter boats as melted butter was a commonly used dressing.

The plant moulding on the base of the Dehua vessel is not copied by the two European examples, unlike the larger Chelsea jug,
Cat. no. 52.
Chelsea and Chinese blanc de Chine beakers
Chelsea and Chinese blanc de Chine beakers
9. A Chinese blanc de Chine beaker and a Chelsea beaker
Ht: 7.3 cm (Dehua) and 7.6 cm (Chelsea)                   
Shunzhi or Kangxi, 1650-1720 and c. 1750
The Dehua beaker of  slightly flared form with three applied sprays of profusely flowering prunus, with a plain footrim; the Chelsea beaker very similar except with a concentric footrim.

The positions of the flowerheads  are slightly different  in each of the sprigs on the Dehua beaker, which are matched in the Chelsea example.

The Chelsea beaker has the concentric footrim found on some early Dehua  beakers, although not on this particular example.
Chelsea and Chinese blanc de Chine beakers
20. A Chinese blanc de Chine beaker and a Chelsea beaker
Ht: 7.8 cm and Ht: 8 cm                       
Shunzhi or Kangxi, c. 1650-1720 and c. 1750
The Dehua beaker of tall, slender, slightly flared form rounded at the base, with three applied sprigs of prunus, the Chelsea beaker of slightly fuller form but with similar sprigging, both with concentric footrims,

Provenance: Zorka Hodgson

Chelsea has copied the applied sprigging  of the Chinese beaker very closely, differing only in size and position, and has also copied the concentric footrim.

The beaker was used by Europeans for coffee or chocolate. Matching Chelsea saucers exist, although rare, which are a purely European form.
Chelsea and Chinese blanc de Chine beaker
21. A Chinese blanc de Chine beaker and a Chelsea beaker
Ht: 7.8 cm and Ht: 8.8 cm                          
Shunzhi or Kangxi, c. 1650-1720  and c. 1750
The Dehua beaker of tall, slender, slightly flared form with three applied sprigs of prunus, the Chelsea beaker of slightly fuller form but with similar sprigging.

These are en suite to the preceding examples.
Capodimonte and Chinese beakers
22. A Chinese blanc de Chine beaker
Ht: 5.9 cm                                  
Shunzhi or Kangxi, c. 1644-1722
Of octagonal lobed form with applied sprigs of prunus.

The sprigging is identical to that on the plain sided beaker Cat. nos. 20 and 21.

Ref: Victoria and Albert Museum for a plain lobed beaker, dated 1640-50. Acc. No. F/E 103-1970.

23. A Capodimonte beaker
Ht: 7.1 cm                                              
c. 1743-50

Of octagonal form with applied sprigs of prunus.

This beaker is very close in form and decoration to the Dehua beaker Cat. no. 22, although the lobed rim is more accentuated.
Chinese blanc de Chine beaker
24. A Chinese blanc de Chine beaker
Ht: 5.9 cm                     
Kangxi 1661-1722
Of octagonal lobed form with applied prunus sprigs.

The sprigs are identical to those on beaker Cat. nos. 20, 21 and 22.

Ref: Royal Collection Trust for a set of 5 beakers ranging in colour from white to cream, dated 17th century, RCIN 58897.
Capodimonte and Meissen beakers
25. A Meissen beaker
Ht: 6.7 cm                                                   
c. 1730
Mark: crossed swords
Of flared form with three applied sprigs of prunus.

Ref: Victoria and Albert Museum,  for a slightly earlier but identically decorated beaker and saucer from Augustus the Strong’s Collection in Dresden, with the Johanneum number n=397 W,  accession number c.450&A-1922.

26. A Capodimonte beaker
Ht: 6.8 cm                                                    
c. 1750
Mark: fleur de lys in blue
Of flared form with three applied sprigs of prunus.

The sprigs are identical to those on the Meissen beaker, Cat. no. 25, which suggests that they were both copying a Dehua beaker in the Saxony Royal Collection or, intriguingly, the Italian beaker was using a Meissen one as a prototype.

The difference between the white hard paste of Meissen and the creamier soft paste of Capodimonte is very apparent in these two examples.

Beakers of this form were used in China for tea, and some are inscribed with phrases to that effect. In Europe however the taller vessels were for coffee or chocolate. They did not necessarily have saucers as they were served on a tray, see Hogarth’s The Countess’s Levée for an illustration of this practice.

Ref: P. J. Donnelly, op. cit., pl. 31.
Capodimonte teabowl and saucer and Bow saucer blanc de Chine
27. A Capodimonte beaker and saucer
Ht: 8 cm (beaker), D: 13 cm (saucer)                           
c. 1750
Mark: fleur de lys in blue on both
The beaker of straight sided form, both applied with attenuated sprays of  flowering prunus in high relief.
Capodimonte mark
28. A Bow saucer
D: 13.5 cm                                               
c. 1748-50 Mark: incised line   
Applied with attenuated  sprays of flowering prunus in high relief.

This is an early example of prunus sprigging on Bow, a motif which was to become a staple of the  factory.

The Bute archives at Dumfries House include an invoice dated 2nd November 1749 addressed to      Mrs Walker, perhaps Lord Dumfries’s agent, for “12 Tea cups, 12 Saucers Flower’d..2 Teapots” and   “2 Sug.r Basons flowers”. The invoice is headed “Bo.t of the Porcelain Comp.a at New Canton”.

Ref: B. Horn, Ceramic Bills, ECC Transaction, Vol. 14, Part 1, p. 87.
Doccia blanc de Chine beakers

29. A Doccia beaker
Ht: 7.5 cm                                          
c. 1746-1757
Of flared form with three applied sprigs of flowering prunus, the base with a double concentric footrim.

Provenance: with label for ?Umberto Ventrella Roma

The double concentric foot rim was used on some early Dehua beakers.

30. A Doccia beaker
Ht: 7 cm                                           
c. 1746-1757
Of flared form with two applied sprigs of profusely flowering prunus, the base with a single footrim.

Both these beakers are made of the early masso bastardo paste, a hard paste with a greyish hue.  They are turned on a wheel and the undulations from this can be felt, especially on the first beaker. The sprigs have firing cracks which were a characteristic of the early paste.

Thomas Salmon in his Universal Traveller or a Compleat Description of the Several Nations of the World visited Doccia in about 1750 and described a variety of tablewares with decoration in relief, but he doubted their commercial viability.
Chelsea teaplant beaker c. 1745-49                         Chelsea teaplant beaker c. 1745-49

Chelsea teaplant beaker c. 1745-49
31. A Chelsea beaker
Ht: 7.4 cm                                               
c. 1745-49
Of flared, lobed form with a scalloped rim, with strongly moulded, applied sprays of tea flowers and leaves  spiralling around the body.

Although lobed beakers are found in blanc de Chine, in this Chelsea example the lobes are much fuller, denoting a European silver influence, as does the high relief of the plants which reflects repoussé work. This result is a transitional object reflecting both cultures.

The scalloped rim and dynamic spiral design of the plant sprigs herald the Rococo style in which Chelsea came to excel.

The tea plant motif was possibly derived from an engraving in Nieuhoff’s An Embassy from the East India Company…..(1665).

Nieuhoff print

Bow two handled beakers c. 1750-55
32. A Bow cup
Ht: 7 cm                                           
c. 1750-1752
Mark: lightly incised T on base
Of flared beaker form with two double scroll handles with finely moulded leaf thumb rests, decorated with crisply moulded, applied sprays of prunus.

Prov: Susi and Ian Sutherland Collection

33. A Bow cup
Ht: 7 cm                                           
c. 1750-1752
Mark: incised  line on base
Of flared beaker form with two double scroll handles with moulded leaf thumb rests, decorated with moulded, applied sprays of prunus, the glaze with a bluish cast.

34. A Bow cup
Ht: 7.1 cm                                           
c. 1752-1755
Of flared beaker form with two double scroll handles with finely moulded leaf thumb rests, decorated with moulded, applied sprays of prunus.

The John Bowcock Memorandum Book has the entry, “…Nov. 29, 1756,…Mr Fogg: caudle cups, white sprig’d with saucers…”.

Handleless beakers of this form were used in China for tea. In Europe however the taller vessels were for coffee, chocolate or apparently occasionally for caudle, a drink given to women after childbirth. The addition of handles is indicative of the movement away from pure Chinese forms. They were first produced at Meissen in the earliest years of that factory, and Bow is following the Meissen prototype.
Bottger meissen beakers and saucers c. 1715-20
35. A Böttger Meissen beaker and saucer
Ht: 8.2 cm (beaker), D: 13 cm (saucer)                          
c. 1715-1720
Of slightly flared, straight sided form with a band of crisply moulded, applied acanthus leaves around the base, with two complexly shaped handles, the saucer with acanthus leaves around the footrim.

The sparceness of the design shows the superb white porcelain to advantage.

The leaf pattern was devised by Johann Jacob Irminger (1635-1724), the Saxon Court silversmith who became overseer of the factory. The use of the acanthus leaf, a classical Western motif, indicates that the factory was intent on developing its own Baroque aesthetic, independent of Chinese taste, from its inception. European metalwork was an important design source for the new aesthetic.
Bottger Meissen saucer
36. A Böttger Meissen beaker and saucer
Ht: 8.2 cm (beaker), D: 13 cm (saucer)      c. 1715-1720
Of slightly flared, straight sided form with a band of crisply moulded, applied acanthus leaves around the base, with two complexly shaped handles, the saucer with a band of acanthus leaves around the footrim.

For a discussion of this form, see note for the previous   entry.

Ref: U. Pietsch, Early Meissen Porcelain, a Private Collection, no. 23 for a closely related teabowl and saucer.
Capodimonte blanc de Chine teabowl

37. A Capodimonte teabowl
Ht: 5 cm           
c. 1750
Mark: fleur de lys in blue
Of slightly flared form with a moulded, applied prunus sprig.

The bowl is particularly finely moulded and very translucent.

Ref: Victoria and Albert Museum for a related prunus moulded beaker, Acc. No. 230-1918.

Bow teabowl and saucer c. 1750-52
38. A Bow teabowl and saucer
Ht: 4.2 cm (teabowl), D: 11.5 cm (saucer)                                 
c. 1750-52
With gently scalloped rims, applied with moulded prunus sprays.

Prov: Frank Wheeldon Coll.

The Bute archives at Dumfries House include an invoice dated 21st August 1749  for “6 Cups 6 Saucers Flow… Tea pott … 6 Coffee cups”. The      invoice is receipted “ the Porcelain Company”. As another related invoice is headed “the Porcelain Comp.a at New Canton” (see Cat. no. 28), one can assume this invoice refers to the Bow factory.

The order was for a half tea and coffee service. As coffee cups are mentioned separately, the cups   recorded in the invoice must refer to teabowls.   Also itemised are a “Milk pott” and “Sugr Dish”.
Chelsea blanc de Chine teabowl c. 1750-52
39. A Chelsea teabowl
Ht: 5 cm      
Raised anchor period, c. 1750-52
Mark: 3 stilts
Of octagonal form.

It is rare to find an undecorated example. These are better known with fable decoration by           J. H. O’Neale or Vincennes style flowers.
 

Meissen blanc de Chine bowl c. 1730
40. A Meissen bowl
D:  17.5 cm                   
c. 1730
Mark: crossed swords
Of slightly flared form with moulded, applied prunus sprigs.
Bow blanc de Chine bowl c. 1750  
41. A Bow bowl
D: 12 cm                  
c. 1750
The bowl with a lobed rim and applied with prunus sprays.

Ref: A. Gabszewicz, Made at New Canton, Bow Porcelain from the London Borough of Newham, no. 21.
  St Cloud cup and saucer blanc de Chine c. 1720-40
42. A Saint-Cloud cup and saucer
Ht: 7 cm (cup), D: 12.5 cm (saucer)    
c. 1720-40
The cup with a strongly moulded scroll handle with a leaf thumb rest, the saucer with a raised trembleuse gallery, both with moulded, applied prunus sprays.

The leaf thumb rest is inspired by the long, stiff leaves found on Oriental wares, the handle form is Baroque. In form this cup and saucer are European, Dehua blanc de Chine is referenced only in the prunus decoration.
St Cloud cup and saucer prunus decoratin handle
St Cloud cup and saucer with garlands, c. 1730-50
43. A Saint-Cloud cup and saucer
Ht: 7 cm (cup), D: 12.5 cm (saucer)     
c. 1730-50
The cup with a strongly moulded scroll handle with an acanthus leaf thumb rest, the saucer with a raised trembleuse gallery, both with moulded, applied garlands of flower heads and leaves.

The cup and saucer have evolved in their stylistic references to being completely Western. The  handle form with the European  classical acanthus motif and the garlands are Baroque, with no Oriental influence.
St Cloud cup and saucer handle

Meissen cup and saucer c. 1730-40 
44. A Meissen cup and saucer
Ht: 5 cm (cup), D: 13 cm (saucer)        
c. 1730-40
Mark: crossed swords
The low cup with a wishbone handle, decorated with moulded and applied branches of grape vine, the saucer similarly decorated on the reverse.

The applied grape vine motif was devised in the first years of the factory, an early attempt at     creating a European character for the wares.

Ref: Cummer Gallery of Art, The Wark  Collection of Early Meissen  Porcelain, no. 29 for a teapot with a grape design and Johanneum number, c. 1710-15.
 Capodimonte cup c. 1750
45. A Capodimonte cup
Ht: 6.5 cm                      
c. 1750
Decorated in low relief with daisy-like flowers and leaves, with a crabstock handle.

The design has been moulded integrally with the cup, not applied separately.
 Bow blanc de Chine mug or can c. 1758-60
46. A Bow mug
Ht: 6 cm                  
c. 1758-60
Of straight sides with three spreading, moulded and applied prunus sprays, with a loop handle with central ridge, slightly blued glaze.

Ref: A. Gabszewicz, op. cit., no. 26 for a sucrier with similar sprigging and glaze.
 Doccia cup and saucer

Ovid Metamorphoses Triumph of Bacchus print
Doccia cup
47. A Doccia cup and saucer
Ht: 5.5 cm (cup), D: 13 cm (saucer)                               
c. 1760-1770
The cup with flared rim and Rococo scroll handle, decorated with bas-relief scenes of The Triumph of Bachus and The Flaying of Marsyas, from Metamorphoses d’Ovid  by Antoine Banier, 1732, the saucer decorated with four cartouches and festoons of fruit and flowers in relief.

Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine vase
48. A Chinese blanc de Chine sleeve vase
Ht: 13.5 cm                                                
Qianlong  c. 1760-1780
A sleeve vase of cylindrical, tapered form and surmounted by a turned, flared neck, one side moulded with a branch of flowering prunus, and applied with high relief archaic Buddhist lion-mask handles, each surrounded by a mane of curls.

Ref: P. J. Donnelly, op. cit., pl. 51c for a similarly shaped vase with elaborate prunus moulding and cyclical date 1764.
Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine vase lion mask
Meissen coffee pot c. 1725-30

Meissen coffee pot, blanc de Chine, c. 1725-30
49. A Meissen coffee pot and cover
Ht: 23 cm                                
c. 1725-1730
Mark: crossed swords
A pear shaped coffee pot with bill spout and scroll handle, the cover with a turned finial, both are applied with sprays of rose leaves and buds in relief.

Applied rose decoration was used from the earliest period of the factory, possibly inspired by the raised flower designs found on Japanese porcelain in the Dresden collection.

Ref: The Cummer Gallery of Art, op. cit., no.37 for the moulding and no. 505 for the form.
Meissen jug with grape moulding
50. A Meissen water or coffee pot
Ht: 12 cm                 
c. 1730-40
Mark: crossed swords
A pear shaped water or coffee pot with a rococo spout and wishbone handle, decorated with moulded and applied branches of grape vine.

Ref: The Cummer Gallery of Art, op. cit., no. 29 for the moulding and 341 for the shape. It would have had a flat lid.
Chelsea and dehua blanc de Chine peach shaped jugs
51. A Chinese blanc de Chine leaf shaped brush washer
W: 9 cm, Ht: 5 cm                                 
Kangxi c. 1662-1690
The deep cup in the shape of a serrated leaf, possibly lotus, with a moulded stem with branching leaves and flowers forming the feet on the underside.

There are flat stands or pickle trays of the same form which were also copied at Chelsea.

Ref: P. J. Donnelly, op. cit., pl. 39 c

52. A Chelsea leaf shaped jug
W: 10.5 cm, Ht: 5 cm                                   
c. 1750 -1753
Of similar form to Cat. No. 51 however the stem has been used to form a handle thus creating a jug.

There are blanc de Chine brush washers known with the stem forming a handle, the inspiration for this example.

Ref: R. Wise Sharp, China to Light up a House, p. 73 for the Chelsea jug and stands both Chinese  and Chelsea.

Chinese dehua blanc de Chine peach shaped brush washer Chinese brush washer base

Chelsea leaf shaped jug base Chelsea leaf shaped jug base
Bow peach shaped creamboat
53. A Bow creamboat
L: 12 cm                 
c. 1750-54
A peach shaped jug with crabstock handle and applied branching prunus moulding forming the feet.

Peach form cups are found in blanc de Chine - see Ashmolean Museum, EA1968.208.

Ref: E. Adams and D. Redstone, Bow Porcelain, fig. 27 for a creamboat with a different handle.

Chantilly cream boat
54. A Chantilly jug
L: 9 cm                                  
c. 1735-1745
The small jug or creamboat moulded with acanthus leaves, the stems forming a handle and feet.

This shape was copied at Chelsea and, unlike Chantilly which made a leaf shaped stand for the jug, the factory also made teapots and sucriers similarly moulded with acanthus leaves.

Provenance: Firestone Collection

Ref. A. Dawson, French Porcelain, no 36.
Bow sparrow beak jug
55. A Bow jug
Ht: 8.2 cm                               
c. 1752-1754
A baluster shaped sparrow beak jug on a pedestal foot, applied rose sprigs, and an elaborate double scroll handle.

The form is from English and Continental silver. Some early “milk potts” were devised by inserting a V shaped spout into a baluster mustard pot, an example is in the Fries Museum, Leeuwarden.

Ref: P. Begg & B. Taylor, A Treasury of Bow, no. 156 for the rose sprig & no. 163 for the handle.
           Chelsea Goat and Bee jug c. 1745-49    Chelsea Goat and Bee jug c. 1745-49
56. A Chelsea Goat and Bee jug
Ht. 11 cm
c. 1745-1749
Mark: incised triangle
Finely moulded with two recumbent goats facing in opposite directions supporting a flower embossed cornucopia  with an applied bee, the handle formed as a twig with applied oak leaves.

The inspiration for these jugs comes from the Hugenot silversmiths Paul Crespin and Nicholas Sprimont, later the owner of the Chelsea factory. Crespin created a tureen and stand, dated 1740 which rested on recumbent goats and Sprimont in the neighbouring workshop in Soho, made the Ashburnham Centrepiece in 1747 with a basket supported by two standing goats.

The symbolism of goats alludes to Amalthea, the goat, famed for suckling the infant Zeus on Mount Ida.  In  thanks for her nurture and care he returned her broken horn with the promise that it would be endlessly replenished with a supply of fruits, hence the cornucopia or Horn of Plenty representing abundance and prosperity. The subject is again portrayed in Chelsea porcelain with the Triangle Period figure of the Boy milking a Goat inspired by Bernini’s 1609 marble Goat Amalthea. Sprimont may also have been aware of the Poussin engraving of The Childhood of Zeus which clearly illustrates the myth and realised its suitability as a design source for a milk jug.

Ref. Victoria & Albert Museum, M.46:1,2-1971, Ashburnham centrepiece;
Toledo Museum of Art, 1964.51 A-D, Crespin tureen;
Z. Hodgson, ECC Trans. Vol 14, Part 1, p. 44;
P. Begg, White Gold, no 87 for three versions of the jug.
 chelsea jug base
Bow milok jug c. 1755-60 

57. A Bow milk jug
Ht. 9 cm                               
c. 1755-1760
An unusual sparrow beak jug with a bifurcated stem handle and applied leaves and flowers to either side of the terminal.

The applied leaves, probably European  rather than Oriental, show the influence of Meissen and then Chelsea where the leaves and handle would have been painted in naturalistic enamels.

Ref: E Adams, Chelsea Porcelain, fig. 8.48 for a Chelsea teapot with similar moulding around the handle terminal.
   

Worcester dolphin ewer
58. A Worcester dolphin ewer
Ht: 8.5 cm                                      
c. 1768
A finely potted ewer, moulded as a shell with two entwined dolphins beneath the spout and a lamprey handle.

The shape of the ewer or butter boat loosely follows George II silver forms and would have been used during the serving of fish or shellfish as indicated by the moulded decoration.

Ref: Victoria & Albert Museum, Gilbert.733-2008, for a silver gilt jug by Paul de Lamerie 1737.   
Worcester barrel shaped jug
59. A Worcester barrel-shaped jug
Ht: 7 cm                              
c. 1770-1775
A barrel-shaped jug with moulded hoops and complex c-scroll handle, the centre of the barrel with applied feather-like Rococo scrolls.

The barrel form was a popular theme in English silver design of the mid 18th century, particularly for mustard pots and was readily adopted by the porcelain factories of Worcester, Lowestoft and Caughley.
St Cloud blanc de Chine sucrier c. 1730
60. A Saint-Cloud sucrier and cover
Ht: 10 cm                                   
c. 1730
A circular sucrier with a flat cover and turned knop, applied with prunus sprigs.

The factory at Saint-Cloud started producing white porcelain in the 1720’s and an inventory of 1727 showed one seventh of the production was “porcelaine blanche”. The wares with “prunus branch” decoration were never marked and the inference was that they were to be sold on as true blanc de Chine however the sprigging also appears on European forms so were unlikely to be mistaken for Dehua originals.

Ref: B. Rondot, op. cit., p. 270.
St Cloud pot and cover with silver mounts c. 1730-40
61. A Saint-Cloud toilet pot and cover
Ht: 7 cm                               
c. 1730-1740
Mark: discharge mark 1738-44
A pot à fard of cylindrical form, applied prunus sprigs and mounted in silver.

Ref: C. Lahaussois, Porcelaines de Saint-Cloud,
no. 133.
Mennecy pot and cover c. 1750
62. A Mennecy pot and cover
Ht: 8.5 cm                                      
c. 1750
Mark: incised D.V.
A circular pot with domed lid and turned knop with applied prunus sprigs.

Mennecy white wares often formed part of combined boxed toilet services and travelling tea sets (nécessaires).
Bow blanc de Chine sucriers c. 1752-54
63. A Bow bowl and cover
Ht: 14 cm
c. 1752-1754
A large ogee shaped bowl, flared cover and acorn knop, with applied prunus sprays.

Ref: P. Begg & B. Taylor, op. cit., no. 160.

64. A Bow bowl and cover
Ht: 7.8 cm
c. 1752-1754
A small ogee bowl, the cover with a turned knop, applied prunus sprays.

These may have been used for pomade rather than sugar.
Bow blanc de Chine sucrier
65. A Bow sugar box and cover
Ht: 11.8 cm                          
c. 1750-1752
An unusual  rice bowl-shaped  base with a drop in cover surmounted by an acorn finial, applied with prunus sprays in sharp relief.

Both the shape and the decoration show clear signs of the oriental source however the acorn finial indicates the influence of European silver. In the 1760’s Bow produced a direct copy of a Chinese rice bowl and cover, the cover of which could be inverted as a stand for the bowl.

Ref: A. Gabszewicz, op. cit., nos. 25 & 26;
P. J. Donnelly, op. cit., pl. 38c. for the Dehua example.
St Cloud, Mennecy and Nymphenburg custard cups
66. A Saint-Cloud custard cup and cover ( pot à jus)
Ht: 8.8 cm 
c. 1720-1725
Mark: incised StCT
The cup with chrysanthemum moulding, the cover with a flower finial.

67. A Mennecy custard cup and cover (pot à jus)
Ht: 8.5cm
c. 1750
The cup and cover with spiral moulding, the finial formed as a fruit with a stalk and leaf attached.

68. A Nymphenburg custard cup and cover
Ht: 8 cm
c. 1760-1765
Mark: impressed shield
The cup of plain form, the lid with a fruit finial and attached leaf and stalk.
Chinese Dehua box base, Kangxi
69. A Chinese blanc de Chine box
Ht: 2.75 cm                 
Kangxi, c. 1675-1725
A circular tapered open box with continuous applied prunus moulding, the rim unglazed to accept a second box.

This is one section from a nest of stacking boxes.

There are some examples in the Dresden collection which have had gilded mounts added so they could be used as salts.

Ref: P. J. Donnelly, op.cit., pl. 160;
Royal Collection Trust, RCIN58877, for a box and cover.
Vincennes triple salt c. 1752-60
70. A Vincennes or Sèvres triple salt cellar
Ht: 9 cm                               
c. 1752-1760
This unusual white salière à trois compartiments is formed of circular sections held together by three handles, each bound by ribbons.

From the 1752 inventory onwards triple salts are mentioned in the factory records as à 3 marons, à trois compartiments, en 3 parties and à ances (sic) any of which could refer to this shape.

Ref: L. Roth & C. Le Corbeiller, French Eighteenth Century Porcelain at the Wadsworth Atheneum, no. 138 for a discussion on triple salts.
Mennecy spice baskets
71. A pair of Mennecy spice baskets
Ht: 7.5 cm 
c. 1750-60
Mark: incised D.V.
Moulded as wicker baskets with rope twist handles and applied flowers, the interior divided into two for salt and pepper or other spices.

Ref: Thelma Chrysler Foy Coll., Lot 232, Parke-Bernet, 15th May 1959.
Bow blanc de Chine salt
72. A Bow salt cellar
Ht: 4 cm 
c. 1752-1754
The circular bowl raised on three mask and lion paw feet, applied rose sprigs to the body.

This rare form of salt raised on legs follows the silver examples of the 1730’s which had replaced the earlier trencher salts. The design remained popular through out the 18th century  however  it was a challenge for the ceramic factories to  produce in porcelain.

Ref: A. Gabszewicz, Freeman Collection, no. 43.
Meissen caster
73. A Meissen sugar caster
Ht: 10.5 cm   
c. 1775-1790
Mark: crossed swords over asterix
A small pear-shaped caster with pierced domed top surmounted by a flower, cast in one piece, a hole to the base to enable filling with sugar.

Sugar casters were part of ornate cruet stands or condiment sets which included oil and vinegar ewers and mustard pots. They were sold as part of a dinner service and placed on the centre of the table on a surtout de table. The sugar casters of the 1730’s and 40’s had detachable tops like their silver prototypes. It was  only in the Marcolini  period that they were cast in one piece and filled from the base and stoppered, a practical solution to detachable screw tops.

Ref: P. Glanville, Fire and Form the Baroque and its Influence on English Ceramics, ECC, p. 46 for a discussion of the fashion for salads and the use of condiment sets.
Worcester mustard spoon
74. A Worcester condiment spoon
L: 9.7cm  
c. 1765-1770
A rare example of a finely potted small spoon with the combination of a shell moulded bowl and a rococo scroll handle.

Shells were highly fashionable motifs in the Rococo period, and it was also an appropriate form for serving salt.

Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine bowl           Chinese Dehua blanc de Chine bowl
  
75. A Chinese blanc de Chine bowl or jardiniere
Ht: 9 cm                                                                                    
Qianlong  c. 1725-75
Raised on six feet with a panel of branching prunus with a perching bird on one side and the reverse with trailing chrysanthemum sprays.

Ref: P. J. Donnelly, op.cit., pl. 23c for similar chrysanthemum & prunus moulding to the reverse.
St Cloud seau, wine cooler
76. A Saint-Cloud wine cooler
Ht: 19 cm                               
c. 1720-1740
The seau à bouteille moulded with vertical gadroons, grotesque or gargoyle-like mask handles with protruding tongues and a rouletted rim, the central panel with branching chrysanthemum flowers issuing from a hollow rock.
St Cloud mASK
St Cloud seau, wine cooler
77. A Saint-Cloud wine cooler
Ht: 18 cm                              
c. 1720-1740
The seau à bouteille of slightly smaller size moulded and decorated en suite.

The decoration is a combination of a European silver technique, gadrooning, and the Oriental design of a hollow rock with issuing plants.

Ref: B. Rondot,  op.cit., no. 88.
Saint-Cloud wine coolers
78. A pair of Saint-Cloud glass coolers
Ht: 10.5 cm                                           
c. 1720-1740
Mark: incised StCT   
The pair of seaux à verre moulded with gadroons, mask heads and panels of branching chrysanthemums issuing from hollow rocks.
St Cloud stand
79. A Saint-Cloud stand
D: 18 cm                                 
c. 1720-1740
The stand (plateau) with a scalloped edge and   moulded with three sprays of prunus.

The stand would have matched a covered soup bowl (écuelle à bouilllon couverte) with similar prunus sprays.

The only flat wares, apart from saucers,  made by Saint-Cloud were these stands for soup bowls.
Cap: flat
St Cloud ecuelle and stand
80. A Saint-Cloud soup bowl, cover and stand
Ht: 16 cm, D: 19 cm, stand
c. 1730-1750
Mark: incised StCT
All three pieces are moulded with overlapping ribbed artichoke leaves, the bowl or écuelle with two crabstock handles, the cover surmounted by an elaborate flower finial.

The artichoke leaves although thoroughly European in origin were inspired by lotus flowers on Chinese Dehua porcelain and were to become one of Saint-Cloud’s most successful designs. They are nearly always marked.

Ref: B. Rondot, op. cit., no. 103;
Marchant, Blanc de Chine, 2014, no. 111 for a Dehua bowl c. 1640.
St Cloud ecuelle and stand
81. A Saint-Cloud soup bowl
D: 14.5 cm     
c. 1730-1750
The two handled écuelle finely  moulded with branching prunus.

82. A Saint-Cloud stand
D: 20.5 cm                c. 1730-1750

The plateau moulded with the Landscape pattern, a rocky knoll covered in luxuriant vegetation.

Ref: R. Rondot, op. cit., p. 273.
Chelsea pair leaf dishes
83. A pair of Chelsea leaf dishes
L: 27.5 cm             
c. 1752-1754
Mark: stilt marks
The cabbage leaf moulded dishes with curved hollow stem handles, a pronounced vein on the reverse, unusually left in the white.

Whilst the coloured examples of this form are well known it is extremely rare to see them left in the white where, due to the absence of enamels, the intricacies of the moulding of the leaves become apparent.
Chelsea stand or dish
84. A Chelsea dish
L: 27.5 cm 
c. 1752-1754
The moulded basket shaped dish with applied branching vine leaves and crabstock handles.

Ref: F. Severne Mackenna, op. cit.,  pl. 28 for a coloured example.
Bow pair dishes
85. A pair of Bow soup plates
D: 21.5 cm      
c. 1750-1752
A pair of finely potted octagonal soup plates, decorated with large and small applied prunus sprays.

The Bute archives for Dumfries House contain important invoices from 1749 specifying sprigged wares, one headed “Bo.t of the Porcelain Comp.a at New Canton” the contemporary name for the Bow factory. The house still has a large service of Bow octagonal prunus plates, although the invoice for them has not been found.
Chinese blanc de Chine vase
86. A Chinese blanc de chine vase
Ht: 17 cm      Qianlong, Jiaqing c. 1760-1820
An ovoid vase on a raised foot with a fluted and flared neck, moulded with two panels of deer under bending bamboo fronds, the base with incised scroll decoration.

Moulded rather than applied decoration on blanc de chine was used after the 1750’s and the bluish caste to the glaze indicates a later 18th or early 19th century date.

Ref: P. J. Donnelly, op. cit., p. 87.
Bow shell salts

Bow shell salts
87. A pair of Bow shell salts
Ht: 10.5 cm   
c. 1750-1754
Mark: incised arrow with annulet
A handsome pair of large sized salts or sweetmeats, comprising a deeply fluted shell resting on top of three conical shells, perhaps whelks, lavishly encrusted with smaller shells, clams, coral and the rope-like whelk egg casing on both the base and the large shell dish.

A fragment of the base of a similar salt was excavated on the factory site in 1867.

The Bow invoice of 1749 in the  Bute archives mentions “3 pair shell salts …£1 1s 0d”. The bills refer to items of Bow bought by Lord Dumfries for Dumfries House where the porcelain still remains and provides a valuable aid to dating.

Ref: P. Begg & B. Taylor, op. cit., no 174 for a slightly smaller example;
R. Wise Sharp, China to Light up a House, p. 27 for a similar pair with applied shells to the shell dish;
B. Horn, op. cit., p. 87.
A pair of Bow shell salts

A pair of Bow shell salts  Bow shell salt crab
88. A pair of Bow shell salts
Ht: 10.5 cm   
c. 1752-1754
A pair of large shell salts or sweetmeat dishes, modelled en suite to the preceding entry, with the addition of crabs amongst the smaller shells and seaweed on the bases, in this instance the shell dishes have no added decoration.

The three shells forming the feet of the salts are a form of gastropod, probably cast from a actual specimen.

It is interesting to note the colour difference between the two pairs, cream and a bluish white.    
Bow pair of shell salts

89. A pair of Bow salts
Ht: 6.6 cm 
c. 1750-1752
A pair of finely moulded clam shell salts supported on three conical shells, a form of gastropod, with an assemblage of clams, cockles, coral and seaweed.

Ref: F. Marno, The Shells of Bow and Derby, ECC Trans. Vol 20, Part 2, , p. 361;
A. Gabszewicz, op.cit., no 6 for an enamelled example.
Bow pair 3 shell salts of sweetmeat stand
90. A pair of Bow three shelled salts or sweetmeats
Ht: 9 cm, D.: 13 cm  
c. 1750-52
A pair of small triple shelled salts, the deep shell dishes supported on a pierced rockwork base encrusted with clams, cockles and barnacles, the whole surmounted by a large conical shell, possible a whelk.

Ref: F. Marno, op. cit., p. 365;
R. Wise Sharp, op. cit., p.  23 for a slightly later enamelled example.
Bow three shelled salts or sweetmeat
91. A Bow three shelled salt or sweetmeat
Ht: 9.5 cm, D: 19 cm
c. 1750-52
A large triple shelled salt, the shallow clam shell dishes supported on a pierced rockwork base encrusted with small clams, European cowries, limpets, whelks and seaweed, the central shell lacking.

The Bow factory mainly used shells found in British waters for the accretions to the stands.

Ref: F. Marno op. cit., p. 365.
Plymouth and bristol shell salts or sweetmeat stands

      Plymouth and Bristol shell detail               Plymouth and Bristol shell details 
92. A Plymouth salt or sweetmeat stand
Ht: 18.5 cm  
c. 1768
The triple shell dishes supported on upturned dolphin tails, the dolphin heads forming a triangular standthe whole encrusted with shells, coral and seaweed, surmounted by a conglomeration of shells and coral including, possibly, a spiny frog shell (Bufonaria echinata) and Harpa major.

The cream colour was often a characteristic of early Plymouth, one that William Cookworthy, the factory’s founder, worked hard to eliminate.

The frog shell and the Harpa major are both found in the Indo-Pacific region. As Plymouth was a sea port, Cookworthy would have been well aware of the popularity and desirability of exotic shells.

The use of dolphins supports was perhaps inspired by the silver gilt Neptune centrepiece made for Frederick, Prince of Wales in 1741 by Nicholas Sprimont, a play on Dauphin and dolphin.  It was described as the “ purest Rococo creation in English silver”, (RCIN 50282).

93. A Bristol (William Cookworthy) salt or sweetmeat stand
Ht: 17.5 cm
c. 1770 -1772
Of similar form to Cat. no. 91 however the dolphin’s tails are hidden under the shell dishes and the base of the stand is circular.

The paste is much whiter than the earlier Plymouth salt. The complexity of this shape and detail of the modelling was suited to the hard paste porcelain of Plymouth and Bristol.

Bristol shell detail
Chamberlians Worcestyer shell salt, pickle or sweetmeat
94. A Chamberlain Worcester sweetmeat stand
Ht: 23.5 cm  c. 1795
The four shell dishes supported on a pierced rockwork base encrusted with smaller shells, coral and barnacles surmounted by a figure of Apollo playing his lyre with bocage on either side.

The 1796 stock taking factory list from the “ Burnt ware room” mentions “1 Pickle stand, Apollo, glazed 10s 6d” and a coloured example was sold in 1797 to Michael Loveley, a dealer in Devon for £3 3s 0d.

The shell stand was probably modelled by John Toulouse, an itinerent modeller who worked at Bow, Worcester, Plymouth & Caughley, thought to be responsible for many shell moulded items.

The stand is an intriguing combination of the Rococo and Neo-classical styles.

Prov.: Geoffrey Godden Reference Collection, label for Stoke-on -Trent Museum loan.

Ref: G. Godden, Chamberlain Worcester Porcelains, pl. 32 & p. 60.

A Chamberlain Worcester sweetmeat stand
Berlin and Nymphenburg baskets
95. A Berlin basket
D:17.5 cm  c. 1770-1780
Mark: sceptre in blue
Of round form, applied flower heads and rope twist handles.

96. A Nymphenburg basket
D: 23 cm                                                                                          c. 1760-1770
Mark: impressed shield, incised 43

Of oval form with bifurcated handles.

Ref: A. Ziffer, Nymphenburger Porzellan, no. 209.
St Cloud pot-pourris
97. A pair of Saint-Cloud pot-pourri vases
Ht: 9 cm 
c. 1730-1750
The pair of pierced vases applied with flower sprays and placed on a naturalistic stand, each with a curving hollow branch to one side.

Prov: Elizabeth Parke Firestone Coll.; Lot 4, Christies, 21st March 1991.
A pair of Saint-Cloud pot-pourri vases
98. A pair of Saint-Cloud pot-pourri vases
Ht: 15 cm c. 1730-1750
The pair of tapered vases with gadrooned bases, the shoulder pierced with hearts and diamonds, applied with flowers, raised on pierced conical rockwork stands.

Ref: Firestone Collection, Christies, Part 1, March 1991, Lot 7 for a similar lidded example.
Saint-Cloud pot-pourri vase
99. A Saint-Cloud pot-pourri vase
Ht: 13 cm 
c. 1730-50
Of similar form to Cat. no. 98 and of smaller size with additional applied floral decoration over the gadrooned and stiff leaf base and the shoulders.

The intricate and delicate flowers found on pot- pourri vases were due to the establishment of a fleurimanie or flower making workshop to create naturalistic flowers complete with stamens and pistils, originally applied to classical vases they were then used on the fruits des indes pot-pourri.
99. A Saint-Cloud pot-pourri
100. A Saint-Cloud pot-pourri and cover
Ht: 15 cm
c. 1745-55
Modelled as a two handled flower basket (panier de vannerie) raised on a pierced domed base (terrasse) with applied garlands, the flat pierced cover strewn with very finely modelled naturalistic flowers and twisted garlands.

Ref: C. Lahaussois, Porcelaines de Saint-Cloud, no. 142. 
Chantilly pot
101. A Chantilly pot-pourri vase
Ht: 7.5 cm 
c. 1740-1750
A small ovoid vase on a naturalistic base,  pierced with a circular daisy-like design and applied with flattened, pointed leaves and small hollow flower heads.

Ref: G. Le Duc, op. cit., p. 366 for similar flowers on a pair of tobacco pots.
Vincennes pot-pourri vase
102. A Vincennes pot-pourri vase
Ht: 13.5 cm                           
c. 1747-1748
An ovoid pierced vase on a rockwork base,  a branch to the side, with applied trailing branches and flowers, possibly roses, in high relief.

Known as pot-pourri fleurs en relief, Vincennes made several variants, both with and without branches and also enamelled,  one of which formed part of the Bouquet de la Dauphine, given to Augustus the Strong in 1749.

Provenance: Leo & Doris Hodroff

Ref: J. Gwilt, Vincennes and Early Sèvres Porcelain, the Belvedere Collection, no. 1-5.
Mennecy pot-pourri and cover
103. A Mennecy pot-pourri and cover
Ht: 8.5 cm  
c. 1750-1755
Mark: incised DV on the stand
The pot and pierced cover applied with individual florets (en forme de pelotes de neige), a naturalistic base modelled with a dog beneath a branching tree.

Ref: L. Roth & C. le Corbeiller, op. cit., no. 29, re guelder rose or schneeballblüten decoration.
Worcester flower basket
104. A Worcester basket of flowers
Ht: 15.5 cm
c. 1768-1770
The pierced basket filled with a pyramid of finely modelled flowers.

This is the only known Worcester example of this shape, probably modelled by John Toulouse, having recently arrived from Bow where he had created the form.

Prov: Zorensky Collection

Ref: S. Spero & J. Sandon, Worcester Porcelain, no. 394.
Chelsea pair Sphinxes, raised anchor period and marks

Chelsea pair Sphinxes, raised anchor period and marks

Chelsea pair Sphinxes, raised anchor period and marks
105. A pair of Chelsea Sphinxes
L: 15.5 cm  
c. 1749-52
Mark: raised anchor on the front of both bases
Each with a woman’s head and breasts, wearing an Egyptian inspired head-dress, on a recumbent lion’s body.

The sphinx is the iconic image of Egypt, and from Roman times when Augustus conquered Egypt in 31 BC and brought many monumental trophies to Rome, Europe had been entranced and awestruck by its art.

The Romans used Egyptian monuments such as obelisks in their townscape and Egyptian motifs in their buildings. The Renaissance brought a resurgence in interest in the classical period and archeological excavations in the city resulted in the discovery of sculpture, mosaics and frescoes which had a profound and lasting influence on architects and designers. One such discovery was of the colossal statue of the Nile, discovered in 1513 under the church of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva - a sphinx is by Nile’s elbow with an Egyptian head dress but Romanised face. A Roman work of 2nd century AD, it was engraved by C. Randon after Rossi, 1704, (see detail, below) and the image was disseminated widely.

Nile scukpture engraving after Rossi

Sphinxes were also known in Greek mythology, represented as winged females and the Romans incorporated these models into their visual    vocabulary and art.

Sphinxes were associated with Sekmet the solar deity so it is no surprise a pair by Louis Lérambert and Jacques Houzeau were placed in the gardens at Versailles for Louis XIV the Sun King, on either side of the stairs leading up to the palace, in their traditional roles as guardians and       protectors. These were a combination of the Egyptian and Greek forms, with a woman’s head on a recumbent lion’s body. The sculpture was engraved by Jean Le Pautre in 1676 and the image promoted the use of sphinxes in gardens throughout Europe. Kings Weston in Bristol had copies, and Chiswick House still has several sphinxes albeit of a different form.

A very influential book throughout Europe was Bernard de Montfaucon’s L’Antiquitée expliquée et représentée en figures, published in 1722,  probably the immediate source for these Chelsea  Sphinxes.

Monfaucon engraving Sphinxes
    
Fascination with Egyptian art and culture was further encouraged by the publication of F. L. Norden’s Travels in Egypt and Nubia. Norden came to London in 1741 and was a founder member of the Egyptian Society. A fellow member was Richard Pococke who published Description of the East, which included Egypt, in 1743. This revival of interest would have inspired Nicholas Sprimont to create this pair.

With their unadorned, geometric head-dresses,  Roman faces and strict symmetry, they exemplify Baroque classical gravitas, suitable guardians and protectors of palaces and temples. The softening frame of curls around their faces adds a frisson of surprise to their  austere beauty.
French, probably Orleans figure of Hercules
106. A French figure of the Infant Hercules, possibly Orleans
Ht: 13 cm 
c. 1750
Modelled as a young boy standing  in contraposto, wearing a lion skin and holding a club, the attributes of Hercules.

Loosely based on the massive Roman green basalt figure of the Child Hercules in the Capitoline Museum, known as Ercole Aventino following its discovery, in the 16th century excavation of the Baths of  Decius c. 251 on the Aventine Hill.

Derby also made a similar model of the Infant Hercules c. 1765.

Ref: F. Haskell & N. Penny, Taste and the Antique, p. 229.
St James's or Charles Gouyn's factory seals
107. A St James’s seal of  Pulcinella
Ht: 2.7 cm   
c. 1750-1759
Finely modelled as the hunchback jester from the Commedia dell’ Arte with a characteristic pot belly, plumed hat and a flowing cloak.

Ref: G. E  Bryant, Chelsea Porcelain Toys, pl 39, no 23.

108. A St James’s seal of a dancing lady
Ht: 2.8 cm 
c. 1750-1759
Modelled as a court dwarf, holding out her skirts and dancing.

In 1621, Jacques Callot published a series of engravings of  Grotesque Dwarves, both fighting and dancing,  which provided the source for many 18th century porcelain figures.

Ref: G. E. Bryant, op. cit.,  pl. 39, no. 22.
Chinese Jingdezhen pair of vases
109. A pair of Chinese vases
Ht: 13.5 cm
19th century
From Jingdezhen, of hexagonal form with a white glaze.
Chinese blanc de Chine flowering tubs
110. A pair of Chinese blanc de Chine flowering tubs
Ht: 18 cm
c. 1920-1940
A pair of circular, turned tubs containing flowering prunus trees with birds perched in the branches.

These highly decorative flower tubs were derived from the late  18th century blanc de Chine trees on rocky mounds, the birds may well be White Eyes which characteristically appear as the prunus blossom opens and feed on the nectar and are associated, with the arrival of spring.

Donnelly mentions seeing these flower tubs arriving in England, packed in saw dust and drawing them out of the packing cases to see how many of the branches had survived, they were sold for a few guineas a pair. He notes  “ Today (1950’s) they have vanished, and the appearance of one of them is greeted with a reverence that is altogether undeserved - they even find their way into antique fairs.”

Ref: P. J. Donnelly, op.cit.,  p. 126 & pl. 64 for the late 18th century example.

For more information, please email us:- stockspring@antique-porcelain.co.uk